鎌倉彫の歴史


鎌倉時代(1185-1333) 鎌倉彫の起源

鎌倉彫は、武家政治が誕生した鎌倉の地で、
積極的に中国文化を吸収する中で始まりました。

鎌倉の地では、源頼朝による幕府開府ののち、武士独特の文化が形成されていきます。「宋」時代の中国文化、禅宗文化を積極的に取り入れ、建長寺(1253年)や円覚寺(1282年)などの禅宗寺院が建立されました。また彫漆器(漆を何度も塗り重ねて彫刻した漆器)も宋より輸入され、仏具として珍重されました。このなかで仏像や仏具制作に携わっていた仏師らが、高度な木彫技術を基盤とし、舶来した彫漆に影響を受けて考案したものが鎌倉彫のはじまりと考えられています。禅宗寺院における須弥壇や前机など仏具類に鎌倉彫の祖形をみることが出来ます。

 

Kamakura period (1185-1333) The Incunabula of Kamakurabori

The production of Kamakurabori started when the military government was established and active absorption of Chinese culture began

The Shogun, Minamoto-no-Yoritomo, established a military government in Kamakura, and later a unique warrior’s culture formed. In this period, the Chinese Song dynasty culture and Zen Buddhist culture were actively adopted and Kenchoji Temple (1253) and Engakuji Temple (1282) were established in Kamakura. Also, the choshikki (lacquer-ware, applying urushi lacquer several times and sculpting the designs) imported from Song dynasty China were highly prized as Buddhist altar fittings. It is said the origin of the Kamakurabori was started by the busshi, the sculptors specializing in Buddhist images and Buddhist alter fittings, based on their high skill at wood sculpturing with the great influence of choshitsu, the imported technique of carved lacquer-ware. The origin of he distinctive Kamakurabori technique can be observed in the Buddhist alter fittings, such as Sumeru altars and altar tables in Zen Buddhist Temples.

室町〜安土桃山時代 (1336-1602) 鎌倉彫の確立

室町時代、寺院用仏具が多く制作され、唐物を意識したものから徐々に発展し、
日本独自の鎌倉彫として確立していきました。

鎌倉幕府滅亡後も引き続き禅宗寺院では唐物の需要があり、唐物を意識した鎌倉彫の仏具が制作されました。主に屈輪(ぐり)と言われる渦巻文様や牡丹文様の香合類が多く、まとまった数が現存しています。なかでも、金蓮寺所蔵の大香合は、文明11年(1481年)と刻まれ在銘中最古の作例にあたり、他にも南禅寺、知恩寺、円覚寺所蔵の大香合などが伝わっています。これらの鎌倉彫からは、唐物の影響を受けつつも、和様化が進み、日本独自の鎌倉彫として確立したことが伺えます。

一方、室町後期から桃山時代には、木彫に彩色が施された修験道で用いる笈が関東より北に伝わっています。そのほとんどは大胆に椿が意匠化され、椿文様の作例として重要なものと位置づけられています。

 

Muromachi ~ Azuchi Momoyama period(1336-1602) The Establishment of Kamakurabori

During Muromachi period, many Buddhist altar fittings were produced. During the early period of his time, the style was greatly influenced by the imported Chinese goods but later, as the style gradually developed, the unique Japanese style of Kamakurabori was established

Even after the fall of the Kamakura military government, the demand for imported Chinese goods continued among Zen temples. Many Buddhist alter fittings of Kamakurabori style, with the great influence of the imported goods, were created. There were many incense cases with the pattern mainly of guri (spiral pattern), and peony patterns, and a large sum of works still exist today. Among these works, on the surface of the large incense case with guri design from the collection of Konrenji Temple, the year of production “Bunmei 11 (1481)” was engraved and it is the oldest Kamakurabori work that has an inscription. Also the large incense cases of Nanzenji Temple, Chionji Temple, and Engakuji-Temple have been passed down throughout the generations even to this day.

From these works, it is obvious that while the works were greatly influenced by the imported goods from China, the Japanese style was also cultivated, and eventually, the unique Japanese Kamakurabori was established.

From late Muromachi to Momoyama period, the colored wood engraving oi, or carry boxes for the mountaineering ascetics were spread from fukushima area to the northen Japan, and almost all of them have bold camellia design. The existing oi works are recognized as important works demonstrating the typical example of camellia pattern.

江戸時代(1603-1868) 鎌倉彫の大衆化

庶民文化が栄えた江戸時代には、鎌倉彫においても大衆化が進み、
生活雑器や茶道具が多く作られました。

これまで、鎌倉彫は寺社に関わるものが中心に作られていましたが、財力を持った商人をはじめ各階層にまで浸透し始め、火鉢や手焙などの生活用具も制作されるようになりました。さらにこの時代、茶道文化の普及と共に香合、茶器、盆、茶箱などといった鎌倉彫茶道具の需要も増大、茶人好みのものが多く制作されました。元禄7年に成立した「万宝全書」という美術工芸品の解説本には、鎌倉彫の名称と記述がみられ、少なくともこの頃には鎌倉彫が世に広まっていたことがわかります。

 

Edo period (1603-1868) Popularization of Kamakurabori

During Edo period, as the culture of commoners prospered, Kamakurabori was also popularized, and a large number of everyday commodities and utensils for tea ceremony were produced.

During the previous period, Kamakurabori ware was produced only for temples and shrines. However, during the Edo period, people such as wealthy merchants started to use Kamakurabori, and eventually every class of people used it. Everyday commodities such as braziers and hand warmers were produced in the style of Kamakurabori. Also during this period, as the culture of a tea ceremony became widely popular, the Kamakurabori utensils for tea ceremony, such as incense cases, tea ware, trays and tea boxes were produced with tea masters’ tastes. The names and descriptions of Kamakurabori appeared in the manual of arts and crafts, “Manpo Zensho”, published Genroku 7 (1694) and this suggests, Kamakurabori was already widely recognized at least at this point.

明治~大正時代(1868-1926) 近代鎌倉彫の誕生

神仏分離令発布後、仏師は仏像から鎌倉彫の制作へと大きく転換、
意匠・技術の革新にも挑み、現代鎌倉彫の基礎を築きました。

明治維新後、新政府による神仏分離令によって、それまで鎌倉で造仏に携わっていた多くの仏師は職を失い、後藤家、三橋家を残すのみとなりました。二軒の仏師は、この転機に生活の中で使われる鎌倉彫制作に力を注ぎ、国内外の博覧会へ積極的に出品、その魅力が高評を得ることで、需要が拡大します。意匠においては特に写実を意識した表現が顕著になります。また、乾口塗りをはじめ様々な塗りや彫りの技法を試みるなか、現代鎌倉彫の基礎が確立されていきました。さらに、横須賀線開通に伴い、鎌倉は別荘地として注目が集まり、愛好家も増加して、より幅広く鎌倉彫制作は展開することになりました。

 

Meiji~Taisho period (1868-1926 The Birth of Modern Kamakurabori

After the policy of “The Separation of Shinto from Buddhism” passed and as anti-Buddhist circumstances prevailed, the sculptors of Buddhist images changed their jobs to the production of Kamakurabori, establishing the foundations of contemporary Kamakurabori by pursuing innovative designs and techniques

After the Meiji Restoration, as a result of the Separation of Shinto from Buddhism policy, many sculptors engaged in the production of Buddhist statues lost their jobs. In the case of Kamakurabori, only the Goto and Mitsuhashi families survived. The sculptors of the two families pursued a new style of Kamakurabori which could be used for everyday life in the midst of this turning point. The sculptors actively presented their works through both domestic and international exhibitions. As a result, these works were highly acclaimed and people were attracted by the distinctive characteristic of Kamakurabori, which led to the re-evaluation of Kamakurabori. As a consequence, Kamakurabori enlarged its market. In the design, the consciously realistic expression became distinctive. Also, by experimenting with various techniques of applying urushi and carving, such as hikuchi-nuri, the foundation of contemporary Kamakurabori was established. As the Yokosuka train line started to operate, Kamakura as a resort, attracted people’s interest, increasing the fun, and eventually, the production of Kamakurabori was broadly developed.

昭和~現代(1926-)鎌倉彫の発展

戦後の高度経済成長とともに、鎌倉彫は産業として確立、
新たなデザイン・表現を模索していきます。

戦後復興を経て、高度経済成長期の日本は、多くの物に溢れ豊かな時代を迎えていました。鎌倉彫は、明治期に考案された技術を基礎に、生産の規模を拡大、従事者に加えて趣味で習得する人口も著しく増加、1979年、当時の通産省から伝統的工芸品として指定を受けました。生活様式の西洋化が益々進む中、新たなデザインや彫り、塗り表現による製品を生み出すとともに、美術工芸としての地位も築くなど、さらなる可能性の広がりをみせています。

 

Showa period ~ Contemporary (1926~) The Development of Modern Kamakurabori

With the rapid economic growth of the post war period, Kamakurabori was established as an industry, searching for new designs and expressions.

Going through the postwar recovery period, during the years of rapid economic growth, Japan prospered with material goods. During this period and based on the skills established during Meiji period, Kamakurabori heightened its production. Alongside the professionals, common people started to enjoy Kamakurabori as a hobby, and as a result the population who produced Kamakurabori increased. In 1979, Kamakurabori was recognized as a Japanese Traditional Handicraft by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. While the lifestyle of Japanese people is more and more westernized, Kamakurabori broadens its possibility with the products created with new designs, carvings and lacquering expressions and establishing its status as a celebrated artistic craft.

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